CENTURION Mini Product Catalogue

Tuesday 31 January 2012

Make Your Property Virtually Impenetrable!

It’s a well-known fact that traffic barriers offer formidable vehicle access control, and for that reason they are favoured by property managers who need to control the traffic entering and leaving the premises.  For the longest time barriers have been used to guard the entrances and exits to shopping centres, office parks and secure housing estates and are usually activated by means of ticket readers, free-exit loops, pushbuttons or other access control devices (such as keypads). 

But how comprehensive are traffic barriers?  Certainly a determined car thief might hightail it straight through a boom pole, and there is always the possibility that a hoodlum on foot might circumvent the system.

The SECTOR high-volume traffic barrier has been designed specifically for sites with heavy traffic flow requiring an extremely high duty cycle, with recorded daily operations in excess of 3000.  Add to that a rapid raising and lowering speed, reliable battery backup and an intelligent controller chock a block with features and functionality, and you’ve got an access control system that won’t let you down. 

But, believe it or not, there are accessories that can make this already impressive system even more formidable, and even more effective.  We’re talking about things like...


There is a certain comic book character that has steel claws extending from his knuckles, which he uses as weapons, but even he would think twice about taking on these CENTURIONs.  CLAWS – our very own range of roadway spikes - can be interfaced seamlessly with the SECTOR, or be used in a stand-alone configuration – but either way, criminals and tailgaters won’t be going anywhere while they’re raised.  A lowering boom pole provides the CLAWS with the only motivation they need to stand at the ready, the mighty stainless steel maw eagerly awaiting the first vehicle that dares not stop when it’s meant to.


As we mentioned in the introduction, pedestrian access control has been a thorn in the collective side of property owners and building managers since time immemorial.  Yes, vehicle barriers do provide an effective means of controlling vehicular traffic, but a criminal on foot is able to do equally as much damage and arguably more, since he can do said damage without attracting too much attention.

TRAPEX is a barrier fence that literally covers all bases.  Robust and exceptionally easy to install, TRAPEX forms a comprehensive barrier and prevents pedestrians from circumventing the access control system.  Not only will would-be intruders not be able to use the barrier as their own personal limbo pole and gain access by entering underneath the boom, but the vertical poles extend above the boom pole, making it impossible to traverse.


Let’s consider for one moment – and we can’t stress enough how unlikely this is – that a particularly determined criminal has made it far enough to break your boom pole before being stopped dead in his tracks by the CLAWS’s powerful bite.  Normally, the damage would be considerable and the barrier would be out of commission for quite some time, but fitting a SECTOR breakaway coupling allows the pole to hinge away from the housing when hit, thereby deflecting the impact and saving you loads of time and money.

So there you have it, three things you can add to your SECTOR to make sure that access is truly controlled.

Monday 30 January 2012

Give your remote control an extra button...or two!

On this blog alone you’ve probably come across the word “security” a couple of dozen times – and there’s a very good reason for that.  In the early 1940s, the influential psychology professor Abraham Maslow came up with the now-famous Hierarchy of Needs, which depicts in pyramid-form the basic human needs in order of importance (with the bottom of the pyramid being the most important).  In this hierarchy, Safety – which includes security of body, resources, family and the like – is ranked as being one of the most important human needs, second only to physiological needs such as eating and breathing.  That’s how paramount security is.

The aim of this blog is to help you be more security-conscious by arming you with useful tools, tips and guidelines and by providing new and innovative ways of assuring your own safety and the safety of your loved ones and possessions.  In today’s post, we will be looking at a useful feature inherent in some of our remote receivers, the so-called “shift” function.

What it is

 The shift-button functionality allows the user to artificially increase the number of buttons on a multi-button remote control by using a two-button combination.  In other words, activating a certain gate motor function will now involve pressing two buttons instead of one.

The Benefits

Although the CENTURION NOVA range of transmitters uses secure rolling code technology which makes code-grabbing impossible, making use of combinations rather than single-button activations is bound to up the security ante even further.  In addition, the shift system allows a three button transmitter to gain an extra function and operate four functions and likewise a four button transmitter gains two extra buttons and can operate six functions. 

Another benefit of using the shift button system is that it requires both hands to operate the two button combination.  How many times have you not activated the Holiday Lockout function by accident and was left scratching your head as to why you suddenly can’t open our gate?  With the shift button system, this is far less likely to happen as it now takes two hands to enable the Lockout.

How to do it

With your receiver in Learn Mode, simply press and hold the shift button, and then press one of the other buttons to create a new button.  This combination will then be pressed whenever the associated function needs to be activated.

Thursday 26 January 2012

Unique D-Series Features

If you’ve ever installed a D5-Evo or its big brother, the D10, you know how exceptionally easy they are to install and set up; a wizard guides you through the initial setup and, should you want to change any settings afterwards, you can literally do so at the press of a button.

But there’s a whole range of other neat features you may not know about, and we’ll explore some of them here, on the official CENTURION blog.

1.       Autoclose Advanced Options

Most of you will know that our gate motors all have the ability to automatically close after a pre-set time period has expired.  But did you know that you can set Autoclose independently for different gate statuses?  In other words, say that it’s your habit to stop your gate halfway after you’ve driven your car into the yard, but you sometimes forget to close it again.  This is obviously a huge security risk as a would-be criminal now has carte blanche to get into your yard. 

The solution?

Simply access the Autoclose menu (Menu 3 on most operators), scroll down to Autoclose Advanced Options and toggle Autoclose Partly Open to ON.  This ensures that your gate can never be left open in any position.  You can also enable Autoclose for partly closed and, of course, fully open (which is the norm).

2.       Adjustable – and independent – speed control

What’s so great about independently adjustable operating speeds, is that you can set your gate for a rapid opening but a more measured closing – perfect for those wanting maximum security but have kids and pets to take into account.  Or, if you run a high-risk operation, you can set both the opening and closing speeds to maximum and watch that gate fly!  This expeditious speed, used in tandem with the next feature on our list, is guaranteed to add a formidable level of security to your entrance gate.

3.       PIRAC control

You will find this novel feature under the Infrared Beams menu. 

PIRAC control, also known as Beam Autoclose, allows your gate to close the moment that the infrared safety beams are cleared, meaning that your gate is open for a minimum of time. 

4.       Beam Alarms

We’ve discussed this feature at length in previous posts, so we won’t harp on about it too much.  Suffice it to say that Beam Alarms have added a whole new dimension to what can be achieved with a pair of infrared safety beams.  Just enable them under the Infrared Beams menu and your beams are instantly transformed into high-tech intruder detection devices! Futuristic!

5.       ChronoGuard

There is a whole article about this unique timer technology here.  ChronoGuard is a standard feature on D10, D10 Turbo, D5-Evo and SECTOR controllers.

6.       Useful diagnostic screens

There’s nothing worse than spending hours onsite – often in the blistering sun or pouring rain – trying to troubleshoot a problematic gate motor.  We’ve taken the hassle out of faultfinding by providing comprehensive and accurate diagnostic facilities on all our D-Series operators.  The diagnostic screens will not only guide you when it comes to troubleshooting (though it most certainly does that), but also provides a useful matrix of programmed remote controls, battery status, enabled Time-periods and a host of other diagnostic facilities.  Enable Diagnostic Screens under the General Settings menu.

7.       Delete-Not-Present and Autolearn

These two features are related to the onboard multi-channel receiver, and allow you to either add or delete hand transmitters without actually being in possession of the physical remote control.  Delete-Not-Present is used whenever a remote has been lost, or the owner of the remote has absconded with it.  Basically, this feature allows for transmitters that have not been used within a selectable time period to be removed from the system

Autolearn, on the other hand, allows a selectable time period to be set, during which any specific button, when pressed, will be learned to a specific function.  This is extremely useful in cases where a new gate motor has been installed at a townhouse complex, for example, but not everyone with remotes is present to learn their transmitters in.  The moment that they arrive home and press their remote buttons, the button will be learned into the controller’s memory and the gate will also respond according to the function that has been assigned to the button.

For more information on the functionality inherent in the D-Series range of gate motors, check out our website, http://www.centsys.co.za.

Interlocking D-Series Gate Motors

As promised, below is an article detailing the interlocking of two D-Series operators. 
Interlocking access control devices can be extremely useful, especially when it comes to high-security applications.  For those of you who might not know exactly what interlocking is, it basically means that one device will not be allowed to operate if the other device is in a certain state.  An example would be interlocking a swing gate with a traffic barrier, where the barrier will not be able to raise unless the swing gate is in the fully closed position, creating sort of a vehicle trap.
Let’s look at how one would interlock a D10 sliding gate motor with a SECTOR high-volume traffic barrier.  In this example, the SECTOR cannot raise when the gate with the D10 is open or opening and the D10 gate cannot open when the SECTOR is raising or raised, thus creating an effective vehicle trap.

After connecting the two controllers in the way illustrated by the diagram above, proceed to set the following configurations on BOTH controllers:
                                                                                        INDICATOR OUTPUT = XIO
Set the Indicator Output to be ON only for Closed, and off for all other indications (open, partly open, partly closed, etc.)
You now have an interlocking system.  As soon as one operator starts opening, XIO will deactivate, in turn breaking the Lck connection and enabling Holiday Lockout - meaning that all inputs for the other operator are inhibited.  When the operator closes again, the Lck connection to common will be re-made.
Older operators can of course also be interlocked, but requires the use of a CP78 Multi-LED driver.

Wednesday 25 January 2012

Synchronising Two D5-Evo Sliding Gate Motors

Many industrial installations call for two sliding gate motors to be synchronised, meaning that they will operate – move and stop – simultaneously.  This type of setup is ideal for entrances to premises with extremely wide driveways such as airplane hangars and factories; it is, however, crucial that the two gates operate exactly in tandem as one of them falling out of sequence could potentially affect the other one and result in the entry being rendered inoperative.

In the past, your best bet was to make use of a synchronisation card of sorts to connect the two gate motors.  Typically, their trigger and ground signals would be linked so that when one gate motor is activated, the second unit would also respond.  But with the advent of our D-Series range of controllers, synchronisation has become much, much simpler and there is no longer even a need to purchase additional equipment to achieve seamless synchronisation. 

The diagram below shows how you can link two D-Series gate motors by simply connecting two inputs and changing a few settings on the controllers.

What this essentially means is that, when D5-Evo 2 is triggered, an output will be generated on XIO which will in turn activate FRX on D5-Evo 1 and, because their commons are also linked, there will be a valid ground.

NOTE:  The Gate Status settings need only be changed on and remotes only learned into D5-Evo 2, but the Autoclose settings need to be changed on both of the motors in order for them to close at exactly the same time.  Remember that FRX will only initiate an opening cycle, and never a closing cycle.

The remote function can be set as either Trigger Gate or Open Only.
The Auxiliary Input / Output can also be used for interlocking, which will be the focus of a future blog post.

Perfect Your VECTOR2 Installation!

The VECTOR2 is one of the easiest-to-install and most user-friendly swing gate operators on the market today.  A revolutionary planetary gearbox, DC motor and centrifugal braking system make the VECTOR2 a reliable, robust and versatile gate motor that can be used to automate gates for domestic as well as light-industrial applications.  The setup is veritable child’s play, with an LCD interface guiding the user through all the steps via an exceptionally user-friendly wizard.

To summarise, installing and setting up the VECTOR2 is easy as pie, but there are still some things you, the installer can do to ensure the initial and continued reliable operation of your gate motor.

1.       What’s your angle?

In all aspects of life, be it in a business sense or when deciding what to cook for dinner, one needs an angle.  A strategy, an approach.  The same is true when it comes to installing your VECTOR2 operator, but this time we’re talking geometry.  Don’t worry, you don’t need to go digging for your old high school maths textbooks, just look to the accompanying installation manual or pocket guide for guidance.  The swing angle is important, as this is used to determine the maximum weight that the gate can be for a given operator, be it V400 or V500.  The wider the swing angle, the less the load can be.  For instance, a gate opening to 120° that is 2.5m high, must not weigh more than 65kg if you wish to automate it with a V400.  The VECTOR2 installation manual contains a table denoting the different swing angles and corresponding length and weight.

2.       Dimensions

This is a crucial part of the pre-installation process and one that is sadly often overlooked.   The function of the A and B values is to serve as guidelines as to the ideal mounting points on the gate and pillar, i.e. the locations that will allow the actuators to operate with a minimum of strain upon the gearbox.  The respective values will also depend upon the gate opening angle, the gate size and the stroke length, and is tabulated below.

For gates opening to an angle of 90° or less, the A value is obtained by measuring the distance from the centre of the pillar to the centre of the gate hinge, while the B value is obtained by measuring the distance from the centre of the pillar to the point on the mounting bracket where the actuator is to be mounted.  The VECTOR2 installation manual contains tables denoting the various possible A and B dimensions and corresponding swing angles, length, weight, etc.

3.       The winds of change

Wind loading refers to the force exercised upon the gate by the wind blowing against it, and is determined by factors such as the coverage of the gate (is it solid or does it have slots?) as well as the length.  The A and B values also come into play here, as higher combined values usually result in the operators being able to handle higher wind speeds.  Once again, a reference table is available in the manual.

4.       Get the cable right!

If the sensor harness isn’t tied off correctly, it can wreak all sorts of havoc.  The sensor signal might not be relayed to the encoder reliably and you’ll hear the tell-tale “clack-clack-clack” sound of a failed DOSS.  Alternatively, the controller might not even complete the setup if this cable is in distress.  Tie the cable off in such a way as to allow for a 350mm loop between the cable exit at the back of the operator and either the mounting bracket or the junction box, to minimise the flexing of the harness.

It is recommended that VECTOR cable be used for all VECTOR2 installations for the following reasons:

·         The cable is shielded, reducing the chance of the sensor signal being scrambled if the VECTOR cable is routed in the same conduit as high voltage lines such as electric fence wiring, etc.

·         It should make it much easier for the installer to complete an installation since only one cable per actuator needs to be pulled

·         The cable is multi-stranded, making it more reliable when terminated on either end

·         The cable thicknesses are correct for the DOSS and motor

Follow these few simple guidelines and you're guaranteed a VECTOR2 that swings gates precisely!

Wednesday 18 January 2012

Keeping you in the “loop”...

As an installer of access control equipment, chances are that inductive ground loops have driven you, well, loopy.  Unfortunately, most loop detectors offer precious little by way of diagnostics and you’re often left wasting hours troubleshooting.

CENTURION recently released a new range of loop detectors to come to the rescue of every installer who has ever pulled his hair out in exasperation over a recalcitrant loop. 

This range of highly-sensitive detectors, known collectively as FLUX, steps to the forefront of vehicle access control by providing user-friendly and comprehensive diagnostic indicators via a series of LEDs.  The stand-alone model, known as FLUX SA, also provides audio feedback by means of an onboard buzzer.  With FLUX, finding the correct sensitivity setting as easy as observing the detection level LEDs.  Commissioning the system literally means wiring up the ground loop, applying power, and bringing a metal object close to the loop while the indicator LEDs show you whether you need to go more sensitive or less. 

In addition, troubleshooting is handled by the three diagnostic LEDs, with visual indications for Power, Loop Fault, and Detection. 
Some of the other advanced features offered by the FLUX range, are:
  • Very fast detection speed for quick response times
  • Excellent immunity to external interference for improved reliability
  • Easy to install and commission saving you time and money
  • Removable terminals for quick and easy maintenance
  • Dedicated reset button to assist with quick maintenance procedures
  • Wide, adaptive self-tuning range for outstanding reliability
  • Selectable Permanent Presence feature prevents unintended gate closure

So fear not!  You can prepare for an "inFLUX" of loop-related jobs now that we’ve made it so easy!

Monday 16 January 2012

There's something in the air...

Ask any installer of access control equipment what the most costly, tedious and time-consuming aspect of his job is, and you’re guaranteed an answer of:  “Why, the wiring, of course”.  This is an understandable sentiment and indeed one that most of us share.
Not only does it take long to route cable and quite often calls for conjugate to be installed, but it is well-known to anybody who has ever done even the most cursory of wiring jobs, that cable is incredibly expensive.
For exactly these reasons, CENTURION has developed the SMARTGUARDair completely wireless keypad, a revolutionary access control device that offers not only the functionality of the original hard-wired model, but a myriad of other useful features – all while affording the user the convenience of completely wireless connectivity.
The SMARTGUARDair is compatible with all CENTURION rollingcode receivers, effectively making it a high-security and undeniably feature-rich remote control. 
Here are some of the benefits offered by the SMARTGUARDair:
·         Wireless connectivityquick and easy to install and can be mounted anywhere

·         1000 unique codes using one to ten digits – great versatility and security
·         15 channels – activate up to 15 compatible devices, e.g. gate motor, garage door, alarm, etc.
·         Selectively add and delete user codes

·         Backup Memory Module – never lose stored data

·         Limited uses counter – only grant access a certain number of times, e.g. to security company to get in and out

·         Fully weatherproof – can be installed outside

·         Backlit keypad – for ease of use in low-light conditions

·         Operates on two AA Alkaline batteries, or a separate 12V power supply

·         Up to two years of battery life with up to 300 uses per day

·         Operating range of up to 30 metres

·         Compatible with CENTURION code-hopping receivers

Useful CENTURION Security Tips

Just because the holiday season is at an end doesn’t mean criminals will be taking a break from their evil business – anything but!  We still need to be one step (or, if possible, several steps) ahead and the best way to achieve this is by taking proactive measures.  We’ve all heard that old adage:  prevention is better than cure – and that folk wisdom holds true when it comes to protecting our homes.

Here are some ways you can use your CENTURION gate motor or access control device to keep the baddies at bay:

·         If you have a keypad – remember to change the Master Code!

It’s so easy to forget to change the default master code.  If you take one thing away from this article, let it be to remember to change that little code.  The Master Code generally operates Channel 1, and if you are using that channel to activate your gate motor and open your entrance gate, the default master code is all an intruder needs to gain access to your property and cause incalculable damage – so either change your master code yourself, ask an installer to do it for you, or contact our Technical Support call centre on 0861 003 123 (RSA only) so that we can guide you through the process

·         Make use of Positive Close Mode

Yes, criminals are clever, but that doesn’t mean that their approaches aren’t downright barbaric at the best of times.  You may find that oftentimes your gate leaves a small gap when it’s closed – a gap that might just be big enough to get a crowbar in.  Ergo, the evildoer now has access to your property through simple kinetics.  The vast majority of our gate motors have the Positive Close Mode feature which allows the gate to close up right against the endstop – use it!

·         Intruder-detection Alarms

This feature is available on all our D-Series (D5-Evo, D10, D10 Turbo and VECTOR) operators and allows you to turn your infrared safety beams into high-tech intruder detection devices.  Two different alarm configurations are available, namely:

o   The Break-in Alarm, which will cause the onboard buzzer to emit a continuous tone whenever the closing beams are interrupted, and

o   The Ambush Alarm, which will cause the onboard buzzer to emit a continuous tone if either the opening or closing safety beams have been interrupted for a pre-defined period of time.  This is particularly useful since it means you will be notified of people loitering in front of your entrance gate or if your beam lenses have been covered or otherwise tampered with – the modus operandi of many modern criminals.

·         Keep the manual override access door locked

The manual override thumbwheel/lever/cam lock is used to disengage the motor’s gearbox so that the gate can be operated by hand.  It requires no great flight of fancy to imagine what criminals would do should they somehow gain access to this.  Apart from the fact that they would be able to override the gate motor’s gearbox, they would also be able to remove the cover and gain access to a slew of other vital components such as the battery.  Keep the access door locked!

·         Be in the know

Only last year we introduced the G-SWITCH-22, a GSM-based device that can be interfaced with a host of electrical devices for monitoring and controlling purposes.  Simply connect one of its dual inputs to your gate motor’s controller and receive an SMS notification on your mobile phone
whenever the beams are activated or the power to the operator is cut.  In addition G-WEB, the associated web interface, allows you to upload transaction logs so you’ll really be in the know.

·         Keep rolling

Opt for a remote receiver that uses rolling code technology.  Dipswitch and fixed code remotes are quite easy to duplicate, and it takes only a moderately determined criminal to figure this out.  Rolling code-compatible remotes, on the other hand, changes or “rolls” its transmission data every time the button is pressed, making code-grabbing impossible.

We trust that these tips and guidelines will help you keep your home or business secure not just over the festive season, but throughout the year.

Thursday 12 January 2012

ChronoGuard - the times they are a-changin'

This is such a nifty feature we reckoned it would be a crime if we didn’t boast just a little bit.  The functionality is almost limitless, and it’s bound to change the face of home automation.

What it is:
Unique timer technology inherent in our D-Series operators (D5-Evo, D10, D10 Turbo and SECTOR). 

What it can do for you:
Using a Real Time Clock and Calendar (RTC), ChronoGuard enables the user to add up to a hundred different Time-periods. 

These Time-periods can be divided into two distinct feature sets, namely:
Auto-activations:  Auto-activation allows inputs such as Free-exit, Pedestrian Opening, the Courtesy Light, Holiday Lockout and even safety beams to automatically be activated at certain times of the day, week or year.

Time-barring of inputs:  This facility allows inputs, such as remote controls or hard-wired devices, to be barred from working at certain times. 
So far, it all probably seems like a bunch of technical jargon with no real bearing on everyday life.  So let’s look at it in practical terms.

Say, for example, that you have a sprinkler system at home.  It can be a downright pain in the neck to try and remember to switch it on at a specific time of the day (four o clock in the afternoon, for instance) and then to switch it off again half an hour later, lest you waste prescious water. 
By connecting the sprinkler system to the Auxiliary output of your CENTURION D-Series controller and then setting up an Auto-activation to trigger the XIO output every day at 16:00 and then deactivate it at 16:30, you would have essentially passed the buck to your gate motor – and it never forgets!

Another instance of where ChronoGuard would be useful is in cases where you need your gate to automatically open.  Perhaps you have a garden service that comes every day at 10:00.  It would be a schlep to ensure that someone is at home to let them in every day, so why not let your trusty CENTURION gate motor take care of it for you?
Simply enable an Auto-activation to trigger FRX (remembering to set your Autoclose so that the gate will close again!) and Bob’s your uncle!  As if by magic, open Sesame!

 So that’s Auto-activation.  What’s this Time-barring business all about?
Time-barring literally stops certain inputs from working at times defined by you.  In other words, say you own a business and you have given all your employees remote controls.  However, they only work from Monday and Friday and, for security reasons, you don’t want anyone having access to the premises over weekends. 

Using ChronoGuard, you can bar RF inputs over the weekends and anyone hoping to work some “unscheduled overtime” will be met by a gate refusing to acknowledge their remote’s signal.  From a security point of view, this puts you at a considerable advantage.  Even if you have other access control devices such as keypads and proximity card readers installed, you need simply time-bar physical inputs as well to ensure that there’s no way in after hours.
 Where you can find it:

ChronoGuard is a standard feature on the D5-Evo, D10 and D10 Turbo sliding gate motors as well as the SECTOR vehicle traffic barrier, all of which are available from Centurion Systems and leading security outlets.

Sunday 8 January 2012

Gate motor lightning protection

Lightning season is upon is (if you live in the Southern Hemisphere, anyway) and, as is sadly often the case, electronic devices will be taking a beating and by extension, so will our bank balances.  Replacing lightning-damaged equipment not only takes a considerable monetary toll (especially since vis major or so-called “acts of God” are not covered by most warrantees), but comes at a great cost to our convenience as well.  Gate motors may not be exempt, but there are some ways of minimising the chance of a lightning strike or at least minimising the damage that ensues.

1.       Proper earthing

This is arguably the most important point to consider with regards to lightning protection.  If you’ve ever taken a high school science class, you should know that electricity always takes the shortest route to ground, and an unprotected gate motor may well provide a lightning bolt with the ground it seeks.   Therefore, it is of paramount importance that you connect your gate motor to a suitable earth point, such as the track that the gate runs on.  Earthing can further be improved by installing an “earth spike”, which is essentially just a metal rod, next to the motor.  It is far more likely that lightning will strike this rod, as the rod provides it with a more stable earth.

2.       Surge limiters

There are some very effective products on the market that can be connected to a gate motor’s power supply and provide it with a means of “clamping” the excessive voltages induced by lightning and power surges.  Of course, these surge arresters will not prevent lightning from ever hitting your gate motor but it should at least minimise the amount of damage that it causes to the electronics.

3.       Built-in lightning protection

Gate automation companies are well-aware of the risk that lightning poses to electronic equipment, and as such much attention is given to the design and integration of onboard lightning protection.  Nowadays, most gate motors come standard with gas arresters and other surge-limiting components to minimise the damage caused by lightning strikes.  Again, the idea here is not to prevent lightning from targeting the motor (the person who invents such a means will be an instant millionaire!) but rather to protect the most vital components.

4.       Take preventative action

If the weatherman reports that a storm is on the way, it is always wise to unplug sensitive electronic devices.  This may cause some short-term inconvenience, but will save you a lot of heartache (not to mention cash) in the long run.